In the Netherlands, television animation developed differently from film animation. Between 1970 and 1989 film animators barely had government support, which made them unite to promote and distribute their work internationally. Television did have governmental support, and all broadcasting companies were obligated to have their programmes designed by the NOS, a facility department with employed designers and animators. By examining the journey these two animation traditions undertook throug the distribution channels of film, television, the 16mm circuit, festival screening and the museum, we see both disciplines develop and flourish in their own way, while rarely having any overlap. It becomes clear that not only the lack of financial support in film, but also the differences in length and the notion among the Dutch public that animation is for children are reasons for the differences in distribution, until they are finally exhibited side by side at the museum.

Comparative Arts and Media Studies, New Cinema Histories, animation, distribution, film, television, illustration
Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision
Tijdschrift voor Mediageschiedenis
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TMG Journal for Media History; Vol 23, No 1-2 (2020): Comparative Histories of Moviegoing; 1-27

Hoogland, Grietje M. (2020). The Separate Journeys of Two Parallel Animation Histories: An Analysis of the Differences in Distribution of Animations Made for Film and for Television in the Netherlands Between 1970–1989. Tijdschrift voor Mediageschiedenis, 23(1-2), 1–27. doi:10.18146/tmg.587